Dictionary Of Occupational Titles
Appendix B: Explanation of Data, People, and Things
EXPLANATION OF DATA, PEOPLE, AND THINGS
Much of the information in this publication is based on the premise
that every job requires a worker to function, to some degree, in
relation to Data, People, and Things. These relationships are identified
and explained below. They appear in the form of three listings arranged
in each instance from the relatively simple to the complex in such a
manner that each successive relationship includes those that are simpler
and excludes the more complex. (As each of the relationships to People
represents a wide range of complexity, resulting in considerable overlap
among occupations, their arrangement is somewhat arbitrary and can be
considered a hierarchy only in the most general sense.)
The identifications attached to these relationships are referred to as
Worker Functions, and provide standard terminology for use in
summarizing how a worker functions on the job.
The fourth, fifth, and sixth digits of the occupational code reflect
relationships to Data, People, and Things, respectively. These digits
express a job's relationship to Data, People, and Things by identifying
the highest appropriate function in each listing shown in the following
DATA (4th Digit) PEOPLE (5th Digit) THINGS (6th Digit)
0 Synthesizing 0 Mentoring 0 Setting Up
1 Coordinating 1 Negotiating 1 Precision Working
2 Analyzing 2 Instructing 2 Operating-Controlling
3 Compiling 3 Supervising 3 Driving-Operating
4 Computing 4 Diverting 4 Manipulating
5 Copying 5 Persuading 5 Tending
6 Comparing 6 Speaking-Signalling 6 Feeding-Offbearing
7 Serving 7 Handling
8 Taking Instructions-Helping
Definitions of Worker Functions
DATA: Information, knowledge, and conceptions, related to data, people,
or things, obtained by observation, investigation, interpretation,
visualization, and mental creation. Data are intangible and include
numbers, words, symbols, ideas, concepts, and oral verbalization.
0 Synthesizing: Integrating analyses of data to discover facts and/or
develop knowledge concepts or interpretations.
1 Coordinating: Determining time, place, and sequence of operations or
action to be taken on the basis of analysis of data; executing
determinations and/or reporting on events.
2 Analyzing: Examining and evaluating data. Presenting alternative
actions in relation to the evaluation is frequently involved.
3 Compiling: Gathering, collating, or classifying information about
data, people, or things. Reporting and/or carrying out a prescribed
action in relation to the information is frequently involved.
4 Computing: Performing arithmetic operations and reporting on and/or
carrying out a prescribed action in relation to them. Does not
5 Copying: Transcribing, entering, or posting data.
6 Comparing: Judging the readily observable functional, structural, or
compositional characteristics (whether similar to or divergent
from obvious standards) of data, people, or things.
PEOPLE: Human beings; also animals dealt with on an individual basis as
if they were human.
0 Mentoring: Dealing with individuals in terms of their total
personality in order to advise, counsel, and/or guide them with regard
to problems that may be resolved by legal, scientific, clinical,
and/or other professional principles.
1 Negotiating: Exchanging ideas, information, and opinions with others
to formulate policies and programs and/or arrive jointly at
decisions, conclusions, or solutions.
2 Instructing: Teaching subject matter to others, or training others
(including animals) through explanation, demonstration, and supervised
practice; or making recommendations on the basis of technical disciplines.
3 Supervising: Determining or interpreting work procedures for a group
of workers, assigning specific duties to them, maintaining harmonious
relations among them, and promoting efficiency. A variety of
responsibilities is involved in this function.
4 Diverting: Amusing others, usually through the medium of stage,
screen, television, or radio.
5 Persuading: Influencing others in favor of a product, service, or
point of view.
6 Speaking-Signaling: Talking with and/or signaling people to convey
or exchange information. Includes giving assignments and/or
directions to helpers or assistants.
7 Serving: Attending to the needs or requests of people or animals or
the expressed or implicit wishes of people. Immediate response
8 Taking Instructions-Helping: Attending to the work assignment
instructions or orders of supervisor. (No immediate response required
unless clarification of instructions or orders is needed.) Helping
applies to ``non-learning'' helpers.
THINGS: Inanimate objects as distinguished from human beings, substances
or materials; and machines, tools, equipment, work aids, and products.
A thing is tangible and has shape, form, and other physical
0 Setting Up: Preparing machines (or equipment) for operation by
planning order of successive machine operations, installing and
adjusting tools and other machine components, adjusting the position
of workpiece or material, setting controls, and verifying accuracy
of machine capabilities, properties of materials, and shop practices.
Uses tools, equipment, and work aids, such as precision gauges and
measuring instruments. Workers who set up one or a number of machines
for other workers or who set up and personally operate a variety
of machines are included here.
1 Precision Working: Using body members and/or tools or work aids to
work, move, guide, or place objects or materials in situations
where ultimate responsibility for the attainment of standards occurs
and selection of appropriate tools, objects, or materials, and the
adjustment of the tool to the task require exercise of considerable
2 Operating-Controlling: Starting, stopping, controlling, and adjusting
the progress of machines or equipment. Operating machines involves
setting up and adjusting the machine or material(s) as the work
progresses. Controlling involves observing gauges, dials, etc.,
and turning valves and other devices to regulate factors such as
temperature, pressure, flow of liquids, speed of pumps, and reactions
3 Driving-Operating: Starting, stopping, and controlling the actions
of machines or equipment for which a course must be steered or which
must be guided to control the movement of things or people for a variety
of purposes. Involves such activities as observing gauges and dials,
estimating distances and determining speed and direction of other
objects, turning cranks and wheels, and pushing or pulling gear lifts
or levers. Includes such machines as cranes, conveyor systems, tractors,
furnace-charging machines, paving machines, and hoisting machines.
Excludes manually powered machines, such as handtrucks and dollies, and
power-assisted machines, such as electric wheelbarrows and handtrucks.
4 Manipulating: Using body members, tools, or special devices to work,
move, guide, or place objects or materials. Involves some latitude for
judgment with regard to precision attained and selecting appropriate
tool, object, or material, although this is readily manifest.
5 Tending: Starting, stopping, and observing the functioning of
machines and equipment. Involves adjusting materials or controls of
the machine, such as changing guides, adjusting timers and temperature
gauges, turning valves to allow flow of materials, and flipping switches
in response to lights. Little judgment is involved in making these
6 Feeding-Offbearing: Inserting, throwing, dumping, or placing
materials in or removing them from machines or equipment which are
automatic or tended or operated by other workers.
7 Handling: Using body members, handtools, and/or special devices to
work, move, or carry objects or materials. Involves little or no
latitude for judgment with regard to attainment of standards or in
selecting appropriate tool, object, or materials.