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TITLE: Vocational and Educational Counselors
DEFINITION: Counsel individuals and provide group educational and vocational guidance services.
1. Advises counselees to assist them in developing their educational and vocational objectives.
2. Advises counselees to assist them in understanding and overcoming personal and social problems.
3. Collects and evaluates information about counselees' abilities, interests, and personality characteristics, using records, tests, and interviews.
4. Compiles and studies occupational, educational, and economic information to assist counselees in making and carrying out vocational and educational objectives.
5. Interprets program regulations or benefit requirements and assists counselees in obtaining needed supportive services.
6. Refers qualified counselees to employer or employment service for placement.
7. Conducts follow-up interviews with counselees and maintains case records.
8. Establishes and maintains relationships with employers and personnel from supportive service agencies to develop opportunities for counselees.
9. Plans and conducts orientation programs and group conferences to promote adjustment of individuals to new life experiences.
10. Teaches vocational and educational guidance classes.
11. Addresses community groups and faculty members to explain counseling services.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
96 Therapy and Counseling
Knowledge of information and techniques needed to rehabilitate physical and mental ailments and to provide career guidance including alternative treatments, rehabilitation equipment and its proper use, and methods to evaluate treatment effects
71 Education and Training
Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles
Knowledge of human behavior and performance, mental processes, psychological research methods, and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders
63 English Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar
46 Personnel and Human Resources
Knowledge of policies and practices involved in personnel/human resource functions. This includes recruitment, selection, training, and promotion regulations and procedures; compensation and benefits packages; labor relations and negotiation strategies; and personnel information systems
42 Sociology and Anthropology
Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, cultures, their history, migrations, ethnicity, and origins
42 Computers and Electronics
Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming
38 Customer and Personal Service
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services including needs assessment techniques, quality service standards, alternative delivery systems, and customer satisfaction evaluation techniques
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology
29 Administration and Management
Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
17 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems
8 Economics and Accounting
Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data
8 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process
Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including their relative costs, advantages, and limitations
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
Talking to others to effectively convey information
83 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
83 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
83 Social Perceptiveness
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do
83 Service Orientation
Actively looking for ways to help people
79 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
71 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
71 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
71 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
71 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
71 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
67 Implementation Planning
Developing approaches for implementing an idea
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
63 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
63 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
63 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
54 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
54 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
Teaching others how to do something
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
Persuading others to approach things differently
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
46 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
42 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
42 Management of Personnel Resources
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences
Using scientific methods to solve problems
38 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy
38 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
29 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
25 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected
21 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
Using mathematics to solve problems
13 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
13 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
8 Management of Financial Resources
Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures
4 Technology Design
Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
100 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
85 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
65 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
60 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
60 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
55 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
50 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
40 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
40 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
35 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
35 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
30 Inductive Reasoning
The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.
30 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
25 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
25 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
25 Time Sharing
The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)
25 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
25 Auditory Attention
The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds
25 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
20 Hearing Sensitivity
The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness
15 Response Orientation
The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts
15 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
15 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
10 Finger Dexterity
The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
5 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
5 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
5 Spatial Orientation
The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self
5 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
5 Sound Localization
The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated
5 Glare Sensitivity
The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting
5 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
5 Gross Body Coordination
The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion
5 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
The ability to exert one's self physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath
5 Static Strength
The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects
5 Speed of Limb Movement
The ability to quickly move the arms or legs
5 Reaction Time
The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears
5 Multilimb Coordination
The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion
5 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
92 Assisting and Caring for Others
Providing assistance or personal care to others.
88 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
83 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
75 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
71 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
71 Performing For or Working With Public
Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
71 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.
71 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.
67 Coaching and Developing Others
Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
63 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
63 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
58 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
54 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
50 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
46 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
46 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
46 Selling or Influencing Others
Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.
42 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
42 Developing Objectives and Strategies
Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.
42 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
38 Teaching Others
Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
33 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
29 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
29 Performing Administrative Activities
Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.
25 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
25 Estimating Needed Characteristics
Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
25 Scheduling Work and Activities
Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.
25 Interacting With Computers
Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.
21 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.
17 Developing and Building Teams
Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
17 Resolving Conflict or Negotiating with Others
Handling complaints, arbitrating disputes, and resolving grievances, or otherwise negotiating with others.
13 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
8 Controlling Machines and Processes
Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
8 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
4 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
4 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
4 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
100 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
85 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
84 (I) Deal With External Customers
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?
83 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
80 (I) Provide a Service to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?
76 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
70 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
64 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
44 (I) Persuade Someone to a Course of Action
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Persuade someone to a course of action (informally) or influence others to buy something (to sell)?
40 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
40 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
37 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
35 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
33 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
32 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?
30 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
24 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?
17 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
15 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?
15 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
15 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
12 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
10 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
10 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?
5 (F) Keeping or Regaining Balance
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Keeping or regaining balance?
4 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
73 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
70 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
67 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
57 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
57 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
47 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
81 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
75 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
Workers on this job try out their own ideas
66 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
63 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
Workers on this job have steady employment
56 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
56 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
53 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
Workers on this job do their work alone
31 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
|DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles):||
045107042 Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor
045117010 Director of Guidance in Public Schools
090107010 Foreign-Student Adviser
169267026 Supervisor, Special Services
094224022 Employment Training Specialist
045107014 Counselor, Nurses' Association
187167198 Veterans Contact Representative
045107018 Director of Counseling
045107038 Residence Counselor
|AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management):||
|CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations):||
163 Counselors, Educational and Vocational
|CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs):||
130406 Higher Education Administration
131102 College/Postsecondary Student Counseling and Personnel Servi
421701 School Psychology
130201 Bilingual/Bicultural Education
131101 Counselor Education Counseling and Guidance Services
130401 Education Administration and Supervision, General
130407 Community and Junior College Administration
|GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration):||
070101 Administrative Detail: Interviewing
100102 Social Services: Counseling and Social Work
110703 Services Administration: Education Services
|MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes):||
3240 Officer Candidate Company Officer
JJ Personnel-District, MLC/HQ Unit Career Info Spec
JL Personnel-Wellness Program Specialist (WPS)
8B100 Military Training Manager
79S Career Counselor
NC Navy Counselors
|OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics):||
31514 Vocational and Educational Counselors
|OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations):||
0962 Contact Representative
0142 Manpower Development
1740 Education Services
1715 Vocational Rehabilitation
|SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification):||
21-1012 Educational, Vocational, and School Counselors