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TITLE: Social Psychologists
DEFINITION: Investigate psychological aspects of human interrelationships to gain understanding of individual and group thought, feeling, and behavior. Conduct research to analyze attitude, motivation, opinion, and group behavior, using behavioral observation, experimentation, or survey techniques.
1. Observes and analyzes individual relationships, behavior, and attitudes within and towards religious, racial, political, occupational, and other groups.
2. Researches variables, such as prejudice, values transmission, motivation, morals, leadership, and the contribution of social factors to behavior.
3. Conducts surveys and polls, using statistical sampling techniques, to measure and analyze attitudes and opinions.
4. Utilizes research findings to predict economic, political, and other behavior of groups.
5. Develops techniques, such as rating scales and sampling methods, to collect and measure behavioral data.
6. Prepares reports documenting research methods and findings.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
Knowledge of human behavior and performance, mental processes, psychological research methods, and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders
65 English Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
55 Sociology and Anthropology
Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, cultures, their history, migrations, ethnicity, and origins
40 Computers and Electronics
Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming
35 Administration and Management
Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods
20 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
20 Education and Training
Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology
10 History and Archeology
Knowledge of past historical events and their causes, indicators, and impact on particular civilizations and cultures
10 Therapy and Counseling
Knowledge of information and techniques needed to rehabilitate physical and mental ailments and to provide career guidance including alternative treatments, rehabilitation equipment and its proper use, and methods to evaluate treatment effects
5 Economics and Accounting
Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data
5 Personnel and Human Resources
Knowledge of policies and practices involved in personnel/human resource functions. This includes recruitment, selection, training, and promotion regulations and procedures; compensation and benefits packages; labor relations and negotiation strategies; and personnel information systems
Knowledge of plant and animal living tissue, cells, organisms, and entities, including their functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment
5 Philosophy and Theology
Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions, including their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, and practices, and their impact on human culture
Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
Using mathematics to solve problems
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
85 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
85 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
85 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
80 Social Perceptiveness
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do
80 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
75 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
75 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
Talking to others to effectively convey information
Using scientific methods to solve problems
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
60 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
60 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
55 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy
55 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
50 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
50 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
50 Implementation Planning
Developing approaches for implementing an idea
50 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
50 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
45 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
45 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
35 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
35 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
30 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
30 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
Teaching others how to do something
Persuading others to approach things differently
Writing computer programs for various purposes
Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected
20 Management of Financial Resources
Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures
15 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
10 Management of Personnel Resources
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job
10 Operation Monitoring
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly
10 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
10 Service Orientation
Actively looking for ways to help people
Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools
5 Equipment Maintenance
Performing routine maintenance and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed
Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
80 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
80 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
80 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
80 Inductive Reasoning
The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.
80 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
75 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
70 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
70 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
65 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
65 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
65 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
55 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
45 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
45 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
45 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
40 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
40 Time Sharing
The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)
40 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
35 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
30 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
30 Auditory Attention
The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds
20 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
20 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
20 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
15 Hearing Sensitivity
The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness
10 Response Orientation
The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts
10 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
5 Spatial Orientation
The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self
5 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
5 Finger Dexterity
The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
5 Control Precision
The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions
5 Rate Control
The ability to time the adjustments of a movement or equipment control in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a continuously moving object or scene
5 Reaction Time
The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears
5 Sound Localization
The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated
5 Glare Sensitivity
The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting
5 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
5 Night Vision
The ability to see under low light conditions
5 Gross Body Coordination
The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion
5 Visual Color Discrimination
The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
100 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
90 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
85 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
80 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
80 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
80 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
80 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
75 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
65 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
65 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
65 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.
60 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
60 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
55 Estimating Needed Characteristics
Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
50 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
50 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
50 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
45 Interacting With Computers
Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.
40 Developing Objectives and Strategies
Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.
30 Scheduling Work and Activities
Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.
30 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
30 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
30 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.
20 Performing Administrative Activities
Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.
20 Teaching Others
Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
20 Performing For or Working With Public
Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
15 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
15 Assisting and Caring for Others
Providing assistance or personal care to others.
15 Resolving Conflict or Negotiating with Others
Handling complaints, arbitrating disputes, and resolving grievances, or otherwise negotiating with others.
10 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
10 Controlling Machines and Processes
Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
10 Drafting and Specifying Technical Devices
Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to inform others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
10 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
10 Selling or Influencing Others
Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.
5 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, aligning, setting up, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
5 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
5 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
90 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
88 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
80 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
76 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
63 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
60 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
57 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
53 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
44 (I) Provide a Service to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?
36 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
35 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
35 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
32 (I) Deal With External Customers
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?
32 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?
29 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?
25 (F) Outdoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors
25 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?
24 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?
24 (I) Persuade Someone to a Course of Action
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Persuade someone to a course of action (informally) or influence others to buy something (to sell)?
20 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
17 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
16 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
15 (F) Deal With Physically Aggressive People
How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
15 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
10 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
10 (F) Diseases or Infections
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to diseases/infection? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)
6 (L) Diseases or Infections
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to diseases/infections while performing this job? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)
6 (L) Hazardous Conditions
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous conditions while performing this job? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
5 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
5 (F) Contaminants
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Contaminants (pollutants, gases, dust, odors, etc.)?
5 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
5 (F) Hazardous Conditions
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to hazardous conditions? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
5 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
4 (A) Degree of Automation
Indicate the level of automation of this job.
4 (D) Diseases or Infections
If injury, due to exposure to diseases/infection, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)
4 (D) Hazardous Conditions
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous conditions, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
89 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
81 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
67 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
52 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
51 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
24 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
91 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job try out their own ideas
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
81 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
Workers on this job do their work alone
Workers on this job have steady employment
69 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
59 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
47 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
41 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
22 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
9 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
|DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles):||
045067014 Psychologist, Social
|AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management):||
|CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations):||
|CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs):||
420101 Psychology, General
420401 Community Psychology
421601 Social Psychology
420901 Industrial and Organizational Psychology
|GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration):||
110301 Social Research: Psychological
|MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes):||
71F Research Psychology
|OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics):||
|OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations):||
|SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification):||