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Dictionary Of Occupational Titles
Appendix B: Explanation of Data, People, and Things

    Much of the information in this publication is based on the premise 
    that every job requires a worker to function, to some degree, in 
    relation to Data, People, and Things. These relationships are identified 
    and explained below.  They appear in the form of three listings arranged 
    in each instance from the relatively simple to the complex in such a 
    manner that each successive relationship includes those that are simpler 
    and excludes the more complex.  (As each of the relationships to People 
    represents a wide range of complexity, resulting in considerable overlap 
    among occupations, their arrangement is somewhat arbitrary and can be 
    considered a hierarchy only in the most general sense.)  
    The identifications attached to these relationships are referred to as 
    Worker Functions, and provide standard terminology for use in 
    summarizing how a worker functions on the job.
    The fourth, fifth, and sixth digits of the occupational code reflect 
    relationships to Data, People, and Things, respectively.  These digits
    express a job's relationship to Data, People, and Things by identifying 
    the highest appropriate function in each listing shown in the following 
    DATA (4th Digit) PEOPLE (5th Digit)     THINGS (6th Digit)
    0 Synthesizing	0 Mentoring		0 Setting Up
    1 Coordinating	1 Negotiating		1 Precision Working
    2 Analyzing	2 Instructing		2 Operating-Controlling
    3 Compiling	3 Supervising		3 Driving-Operating
    4 Computing	4 Diverting		4 Manipulating
    5 Copying	5 Persuading		5 Tending
    6 Comparing	6 Speaking-Signalling	6 Feeding-Offbearing
    		7 Serving		7 Handling
    		8 Taking Instructions-Helping
    Definitions of Worker Functions
    DATA:  Information, knowledge, and conceptions, related to data, people, 
    or things, obtained by observation, investigation, interpretation,
    visualization, and mental creation.  Data are intangible and include 
    numbers, words, symbols, ideas, concepts, and oral verbalization.
    0  Synthesizing:  Integrating analyses of data to discover facts and/or 
    develop knowledge concepts or interpretations.
    1  Coordinating:  Determining time, place, and sequence of operations or 
    action to be taken on the basis of analysis of data; executing
    determinations and/or reporting on events.
    2  Analyzing:  Examining and evaluating data.  Presenting alternative 
    actions in relation to the evaluation is frequently involved.
    3  Compiling:  Gathering, collating, or classifying information about 
    data, people, or things.  Reporting and/or carrying out a prescribed
    action in relation to the information is frequently involved.
    4  Computing:  Performing arithmetic operations and reporting on and/or 
    carrying out a prescribed action in relation to them.  Does not
    include counting.
    5  Copying:  Transcribing, entering, or posting data.
    6  Comparing:  Judging the readily observable functional, structural, or 
    compositional characteristics (whether similar to or divergent
    from obvious standards) of data, people, or things.
    PEOPLE:  Human beings; also animals dealt with on an individual basis as 
    if they were human.
    0  Mentoring:  Dealing with individuals in terms of their total 
    personality in order to advise, counsel, and/or guide them with regard 
    to problems that may be resolved by legal, scientific, clinical, 
    and/or other professional principles.
    1  Negotiating:  Exchanging ideas, information, and opinions with others 
    to formulate policies and programs and/or arrive jointly at
    decisions, conclusions, or solutions.
    2  Instructing:  Teaching subject matter to others, or training others 
    (including animals) through explanation, demonstration, and supervised
    practice; or making recommendations on the basis of technical disciplines.
    3  Supervising:  Determining or interpreting work procedures for a group 
    of workers, assigning specific duties to them, maintaining harmonious 
    relations among them, and promoting efficiency.  A variety of 
    responsibilities is involved in this function.
    4  Diverting:  Amusing others,  usually through the medium of stage, 
    screen, television, or radio.
    5  Persuading:  Influencing others in favor of a product, service, or 
    point of view.
    6  Speaking-Signaling:  Talking with and/or signaling people to convey 
    or exchange information.  Includes giving assignments and/or
    directions to helpers or assistants.
    7  Serving:  Attending to the needs or requests of people or animals or 
    the expressed or implicit wishes of people.  Immediate response
    is involved.
    8  Taking Instructions-Helping:  Attending to the work assignment 
    instructions or orders of supervisor. (No immediate response required
    unless clarification of instructions or orders is needed.)  Helping 
    applies to ``non-learning'' helpers.  
    THINGS:  Inanimate objects as distinguished from human beings, substances 
    or materials; and machines, tools, equipment, work aids, and products.  
    A thing is tangible and has shape, form, and other physical 
    0  Setting Up:  Preparing machines (or equipment) for operation by 
    planning order of successive machine operations, installing and
    adjusting tools and other machine components, adjusting the position 
    of workpiece or material, setting controls, and verifying accuracy
    of machine capabilities, properties of materials, and shop practices. 
    Uses tools, equipment, and work aids, such as precision gauges and
    measuring instruments. Workers who set up one or a number of machines 
    for other workers or who set up and personally operate a variety
    of machines are included here.
    1  Precision Working:  Using body members and/or tools or work aids to 
    work, move, guide, or place objects or materials in situations
    where ultimate responsibility for the attainment of standards occurs 
    and selection of appropriate tools, objects, or materials, and the
    adjustment of the tool to the task require exercise of considerable 
    2  Operating-Controlling:  Starting, stopping, controlling, and adjusting 
    the progress of machines or equipment.  Operating machines involves 
    setting up and adjusting the machine or material(s) as the work 
    progresses.  Controlling involves observing gauges, dials, etc.,
    and turning valves and other devices to regulate factors such as 
    temperature, pressure, flow of liquids, speed of pumps, and reactions
    of materials.
    3  Driving-Operating:  Starting, stopping, and controlling the actions 
    of machines or equipment for which a course must be steered or which 
    must be guided to control the movement of things or people for a variety 
    of purposes. Involves such activities as observing gauges and dials, 
    estimating distances and determining speed and direction of other 
    objects, turning cranks and wheels, and pushing or pulling gear lifts 
    or levers.  Includes such machines as cranes, conveyor systems, tractors,
    furnace-charging machines, paving machines, and hoisting machines.  
    Excludes manually powered machines, such as handtrucks and dollies, and 
    power-assisted machines, such as electric wheelbarrows and handtrucks.
    4  Manipulating:  Using body members, tools, or special devices to work, 
    move, guide, or place objects or materials.  Involves some latitude for 
    judgment with regard to precision attained and selecting appropriate 
    tool, object, or material, although this is readily manifest.
    5  Tending:  Starting, stopping, and observing the functioning of 
    machines and equipment.  Involves adjusting materials or controls of
    the machine, such as changing guides, adjusting timers and temperature 
    gauges, turning valves to allow flow of materials, and flipping switches 
    in response to lights.  Little judgment is involved in making these 
    6  Feeding-Offbearing:  Inserting, throwing, dumping, or placing 
    materials in or removing them from machines or equipment which are
    automatic or tended or operated by other workers.
    7  Handling:  Using body members, handtools, and/or special devices to 
    work, move, or carry objects or materials.  Involves little or no
    latitude for judgment with regard to attainment of standards or in 
    selecting appropriate tool, object, or materials.

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